帶著歷史往前進 「馬祖戰地轉身 轉譯再生計畫」緣起

文/傅朝卿

結束長達近半個世紀的戰地化歷程,1992年馬祖解除戰地政務後,歷經了國家風景區、世界遺產潛力點與再造歷史現場三個重要策略性發展,此一過程並架構於整體國家重要發展脈絡中:是十三個國家級風景區之一、十八個世界級遺產潛力點之一、也是三十七處國家重點歷史現場之一。而串聯這三個國家政策,帶領馬祖邁向未來的,正是數以百計,分布於馬祖大小島嶼的冷戰軍事遺產。  

從國家風景區的視角,「觀光」是島嶼發展的利基;就世界遺產潛力點的視角,「保存」做為島嶼自明的願景;到了歷史現場的視角,「再造」成為島嶼永續的契機。「觀光」、「保存」及「再造」作為馬祖軍事遺產的主題,可以視為三個階段,但更可以是連續性與整合性的總體目標。其中,地方資源的連結以及島嶼脈絡的承續,是能否形成一個整體的關鍵因素。


2018年,馬祖戰地文化遺產建築轉譯計畫是一個企圖突破現階段文化資產保存困境並尋求島嶼永續的前瞻計畫,主要目標是將原本做為展現戰備意志與能力的軍事據點,再造為展示島嶼魅力的轉譯平台。透過政府、民間與各領域專業者的對話,發掘並展現馬祖當前與未來的生活需求及經濟潛能,讓原本被排除在日常運作之外的軍事據點,與居民和造訪者建立具有當代意義的連結。

此一前瞻計畫特別強調的是,在轉譯的過程,歷史性(historicity)與在地性(locality)必須被熟練的專業者(包括建築師、設計師與藝術家)作為一種觸媒來啟發新元素和新生命,以使軍事遺產的「過去」、「現在」與「未來」,「外來」與「地方」得以融合,進而形成一個新的整體,亦即以新的手法,「再造」歷史現場。

以此為基礎,2020年「戰地轉身‧轉譯再生」馬祖再造歷史現場計畫,更進一步推動轉譯做為整體文資策略之一,在馬祖戰地遺產的整體佈局之下,邀請相關領域專業工作者,發展馬祖軍事遺產創意再生設計。與此同時,以藝術採集與關係採集為方法梳理島嶼田野,詮釋與展示島嶼前戰地/戰地/後戰地歷程所呈現的共存系譜,展現馬祖豐富的多樣性與時代性。

我們期待,以設計為方法,針對當代文資議題所面臨的挑戰,提出新的價值論述、對應多元觀點與實踐策略;並透過文字、影像、展覽、出版、社群媒體、大眾媒體、交流講座等方式進行社會倡議與溝通;藉由劇場、展演、文化路徑等空間事件、活動等的發生,創造新的空間體驗與經驗連結。我們更希望,在不同的時空條件與社會脈絡下,以文資治理、轉譯設計與公共參與的格局,拉開島嶼的視野,真正達成再造×歷史×現場的新境界。

Moving forward with history Transformation of battlefield – Gazing Matsu Project Statement
FU Chao-Ching

After ending a half century militarized procedure, Matsu finished the era of military controlled in 1992 and have been going through 3 strategic development stages. From setting up its status as national scenic area, potential World Heritage site campaign, and regeneration of historical sites, this procedure is based on an overall national development sequence. Matsu is included in 13 national scenic area, 18 potential world heritage sites and 37 regeneration of historical sitesof Taiwan. The hundreds military fortresses embedded along coast line are essentialin the continuity of three national development schemes and carrying Matsu to its future.

   

Based on the point of national scenic area management, tourism is the niche market to be achieved; from the perspective of potential world heritage sites, preservation is the blueprint of island’s future. In the meanwhile, regeneration is considered as priority due to island’s sustainability and the narrative of rebuilding national historical site. Tourism, preservation and regeneration are themes as well as subjects of Matsu’s militaryheritage management. They can be viewed as 3 stages, also a coherent and integrative overall objective. Among that, the connection of local resources and response to Matsu context and history are key elements to unity the objective.

 

In 2018, Matsu Military Cultural Heritage ArchitectureTransformation Project (Gazing Matsu) started. It is a project aims to breakthrough the current dilemma of heritage preservation scheme and seeks for islands’ sustainability. The main goal is making the former military fortress into platforms to experiment and express the diverse enchantment of Matsu. The project also transforms fortress from a space with defensive function to a space responds and communicate with its environmental surrounding and social,historical background. Through dialogues among government, local communitiesand professionals, the project will perform in-depth understanding of Matsu’s current condition, future needs and economic potential. It will also turn over fortress’ exclusion status to local residents, and reconnect them with Matsu communities and visitors.

 

Overall, this foresight plan emphasizes on that historicity and locality have to be seen as catalyst to inspire new elements and new activities by experienced professionals (including architect, designer and artists) during the process of transformation and reinterpretation of fortress architecture. It aims to make the past, present and future of the military heritage and its externality and locality can be fused and merged in order to form a new military heritage totality. It applies new method to regenerate historical site.

 

Based on above discourse, in 2020, Gazing Matsu, Matsu’s regeneration of historical sites has been advanced as an overall cultural heritage strategy. Under Matsu’s military culture heritage management scheme, this project invites professionals in related disciplines to develop creative regeneration design for these former military fortresses. At the same time, art projects and interviews are applied as methods to elaborate islands’ hidden history and illustrate its diverse beauty.These procedures aim to interpret and present the juxtaposition of Matsu’s militarized and de-militarized procedure, and to manifest Matsu’s diversity and contemporary meaning.

 

We expect design to be as a solution to respond the challenges of contemporary cultural heritage issue, and to raise a new value discourse to reflect multi-viewpoint and strategy of practice. We also make advocacy and communication via articles, images, exhibitions, publications, social media,mass media, talks and events. Through theatres, performance and presentation,and cultural activities, we create a new spatial experiment and experience connection. Based on culture heritage conservation, spatial transformation and civic participation aspects, we target to enlarge the discussion and realize anew horizon of historical site regeneration for Matsu islands.